Main Page

From Anarchy In Action

Welcome to!

Types of anarchy. Anarchism refers to a political theory and practice that arose in the 19th century, aimed at abolishing coercive hierarchy. Anti-authoritarianism (also known as libertarianism, libertarian socialism, or small-a anarchism) refers to a broader category of politics including Anarchists but also groups such as the Wobblies and Zapatistas that eliminate coercive hierarchy in their practice and in the world they're trying to build. None of the Anarchist or anti-authoritarian experiments in our study have fully succeeded in abolishing coercive hierarchy; what makes them anti-authoritarian according to our definition is their attempt to extend anarchy to everyone, through horizontal means. Third, a participatory category includes examples such as the classical Athenian polis where direct democracy is extended to many but not to all or even necessarily to most of society. Participatory politics encompasses anti-authoritarianism, which encompasses Anarchism. Finally, the autonomous category refers to self-governed entities that have liberatory features but fall short of fully participatory decision-making, such as the Paris Commune. is a resource for anyone to research and write about how and when anarchy can work. Anarchy, coming from the Greek words an (without) and archos (ruler) refers to a situation without domination, without coercive hierarchy. We have collected hundreds of examples of anarchy in practice and sorted them by their scale and focus. By looking for anarchy beyond "big-A" Anarchist projects (although we're interested in those too!), we respond to Maia Ramnath's call in Decolonizing Anarchism to "locate the Western anarchist tradition as one contextually specific manifestation among a larger-indeed global-tradition of antiauthoritarian, egal­itarian thought/praxis".[1] We take our name from Colin Ward's 1973 book Anarchy in Action.

This wiki is done entirely by volunteers, and we encourage you to check our work and help us to constantly improve it. If you see misinformation, please contact us right away so that we can either fix it or assist you in setting up an account so you can edit the page directly. See the About page for more information. Additionally, if you are a member of an organization or another group described on this website, please feel free to send us information on current campaigns, and we will include it so that our readers will know how to get involved or participate in solidarity efforts.


"Once we leave Europe, in fact, we discover that statelessness and the desire for self-government are not eternally receding utopias, but are principles that for millennia have structured communities in every part of the world." -Silvia Federici[2]

"[T]here are also concepts such as anti-authoritarian or egalitarian forms of organizing. Although this differs in degrees from one Indigenous nation to another, it is, overall, a fairly strong part of our traditional culture (with some exceptions)." -Gord Hill[3]

"Egalitarian cities, even regional confederacies, are historically quite commonplace."-David Graeber and David Wengrow[4]


Nestor Makhno with members of the anarchist Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine
Collectivized textile factory in Barcelona, Spain. From Sam Dolgoff's The Anarchist Collectives.

Revolutionary Spain, 1936-9, 3.2 million people

Revolutionary Ukraine, 1918-1921, 7 million people

Shinmin Prefecture, 1929-1931, 2 million people


San peoples



Argentinian horizontalidad


El Alto, 1 million people

Cayonu, 7200 to ca. 4200 BCE


Global Ecovillage Network




Indus Valley Civilization


Itoiz villages


La Solana villages

Longo Maï

Mapuche, 1 million people in sixteenth century


Minoan Crete, 3000 BCE to 1100 BCE

Niitsitapi (Blackfoot)



Rojava, 2012-present, 2.5 million people

San (including !Kung)


Taborite communes, 15th century

Zapatista-run Chiapas, 1994-present, 120,000-300,000 people

Zomia, present, 100 million people


Pnyx Hill, the meeting place of the ecclesia in the Athenian polis.

Aboriginal Australians

Seminoles and Black Seminoles

Athenian polis, 594-431, 404-403 BCE, 40,000 male citizens


Early Christians

Early Israelites

Highland Madagascar


Kibbutzim, 1919-present, 120,000 members in 2011

Landless Workers' Movement


Medieval commune

New England town meetings

Parisian sections


Plateau Tonga

Revolutionary Syria



Castile confederation

Catal Huyuk, 7500 to 5700 BCE, 6,000-10,000 people

Essenes, 4,000 people

Paris Commune, 1871, 2 million people

South Carolina Commune


Swiss confederal leagues


Tribal Arabia

Venezuelan communes


South American Indians

Land Dayaks

La Paz Zapotec, nearly 2,000 people


New Guinea indigenous peoples

Northwest coast indigenous peoples

Nubian people




Dinka people


"The Europeans also imposed their own legal, administrative and security systems in order to meet the needs of the new monetized economies and the more active modern states. All this meant a painful disruption of the familiar communalism of the past. Land now became a mere possession, food a mere commodity of exchange, neighbor a mere common property owner and labor a mere means of survival."-L.S. Stavrianos[5]

"The current theory as regards the village community is, that in Western Europe it has died out by a natural death, because the communal possession of the soil was found inconsistent with the modern requirements of agriculture. But the truth is that nowhere did the village community disappear of its own accord; everywhere, on the contrary, it took the ruling classes several centuries of persistent but not always successful efforts to abolish it and to confiscate the communal lands."-Peter Kropotkin[6]


Guangzhou commune, 1921-1923


Entrance to Christiania
Police dismantling a blockade of protesters at Faslane Peace Camp.
Woodcut from a Diggers document by William Everard

Christiania, 1971-present, 900 people

Faslane Peace Camp, 1982-present

Free Republic of Wendland, 1980, 5,000 people

George's Hill (Diggers), 1649, 40 people

Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp, 1981-200

Life and Labor Commune, 1921-1930, nearly 1,000 people

Village Alternatif, Anticapitalist et AntiGuerres, 2003, thousands of people



Kuzbass Autonomous Industrial Commune, 1922-1926

Pocasset, 200 families



Taita Hills

Ghana shantytown

Minnehaha Free State

Mexican colonial proletarias

Peruvian 'barriadas

Tunisian gourbivilles

Indian bus tees

Turkish gecekondu

Venezuelan ranchos

King Hill hostel squat

Movements and Uprisings

"If we had surrendered, if we had sold ourselves, we would no longer have been poor, but others would have continued to be so." -Subcomandante Marcos[7]

"People have done horizontal, or non-hierarchical, organization all their lives. It is already there in my culture and the way Palestinian activism has worked. During the First Intifada, for instance, when someone's home was demolished, people would organize to rebuild it, almost spontaneously. As a Palestinian anarchist I look forward to going back to the roots of the First Intifada. It did not come from a political decision. It came against the will of the PLO." -Beesan Ramadan[8]


Chicago anarchists advanced the cause of the 8-hour day and started May Day. See The Haymarket Martyrs.

The Haymarket Martyrs

Building the Syndicalist Unions

Anarchists in the Russian Revolution

Anarchists in the Italian Factory Occupations

Anarchism and the Spanish Revolution

Anarchism in the Mexican Revolution

Manchurian Revolution

1999 Seattle WTO shutdown

Modern schools

2008 Greek insurrection

US Galleanists

1911 Lima-Callao general strike

1919 Peruvian general strike


National Guard deployed during the Los Angeles Rebellion of 1992
Community taro patches run by indigenous and non-indigenous farmers across Hawaii

Abalone Alliance

Alcatraz occupation


Alter-globalization movement

Anarchy in the Russian Revolution

Anarchy in the Haitian Revolution

Animal Liberation Front

Anti-Shell actions

BDS Movement

Cascadia Free State, 1995-6

Catholic Worker movement

Community taro patches

Clamshell Alliance

Earth First!

Earth Liberation Front

English food riots in eighteenth century

English Peasants' Revolt of 1381

German Anti-Fascism

Italian Anti-Fascism

Italian Autonomia

John Brown's raids

Kurdish democratic confederalists

Kronstadt rebellion

Los Angeles Rebellion of 1992

Mapuche Struggle

Movement of the Free Spirit

Occupy movement

Unist'ot'en Camp

US anti-nuclear movement

US Green movement

Sexual revolution

Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty

The May-June Revolt in France, 1968

Watts Rebellion

Zone to Defend (ZAD), 2012-present




School of the Tillers

Seminole Wars


Woman confronts soldiers during the First Intifada.

1848 revolutions

1968 revolutions

1919 Seattle general strike 2007 Lakota declaration of independence

2013 Mi'kmaq anti-fracking struggle

American Revolution and Anarchy


Black Reconstruction

Bolivia Water War

Cuban Revolution and Anarchism

First Intifada

French Revolution and Anarchy

German Peasants' War

Jewish armed anti-Nazi resistance

Karaite Judaism


Mexican Revolution and Anarchy

Nat Turner's rebellion

Pirate anarchy

Pueblo Revolt

Red Cloud's War

Syrian Revolution


Oaxaca rebellion

Prague Spring

Hungarian Revolution of 1956

1903 Macedonian revolt

1905–1907 Russian Revolt

1910 Mexican revolution

1960 student revolts


Parisian urban gardeners

Cantonalist Revolt of 1873-1874

Mohawk road blockade, 1990

Work democracy


"SNCC without knowing about anarchism as philosophy embodied the characteristics of anarchism." -Howard Zinn[9]

"The real question at issue is not organization versus non-organization, but rather, what kind of organization. What different kinds of anarchist organizations have in common is that they are developed organically from below, not engineered into existence from above." -Murray Bookchin[10]


Woman with cnt-fai flag.jpg
Har Dayal, founder of Fraternity of the Red Flag
Black Mask/Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers

Anti-Authoritarian International ("Black International")

Black Mask/ Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers

Burlington Greens

Fraternity of the Red Flag

Freedom Fight

Free Popular University (Egypt)

Teahouse Labour Union, 11,000 members in 1918

Crock-Cow Society

International Workers' Association (IWA)

International Working Men’s Association (IWMA)


Korean Anarchist Communist Federation (KACF)

Korean Anarchist Federation in Manchuria (KAF-M)

Mujeres Creando

National Confederation of Labor (CNT), 2 million members in 1936

Schwarze Scharen

Left Green Network

Youth Greens

Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI)

Spanish Regional Federation (FRE), 60,000 members in 1873

Chilean Labourers Federation (FTCh), 60,000 members in 1921

Revolutionary Insurgent Army of the Ukraine (RPAU), 110,000 members

All-Russian Confederation of Anarcho-Syndicalists (ARKAS), 88,000 members

Italian Anarchist Union (UAI), 20,000 members

General Confederation of Labor (CGT) (Spain), 60,000 members in 2010s

National Confederation of Labor--France (CNT-F)

Swedish Central Workers' Organisation (SAC), 10,000 members in 1990s

Argentine Regional Workers' Federation of the 5th Congress (FORA-V), 200,000 members in 1919

House of the World Worker (COM), 50,000 members in 1910s

Bleikhman's Petrograd Anarchist Communist Federation (PACF)

Union of Anarcho-Syndicalist Propaganda (MFAG)

Moscow Federation of Anarchist Groups

Black Guards, 1,000 members

Federation of Anarchist-Communists of Bulgaria (FAKB)

Autonomous Action (AD)

Confederation of Anarcho-Syndicalists (KAS)

Confederation of Revolutionary Anarcho-Syndicalists (KRAS)

Revolutionary Confederation of Anarcho-Syndicalists, Nestor Makhno (RKAS-NM), 2,000 members

Indigenous Popular Council of Oaxaca--Ricardo Flores Magnón (CIPO-RFM)

Magónista-Zapatista Alliance (AMZ)

Anarchist Workers' and Students' Group (ASWG)

Awareness League (AL)

Anarchist Resistance Movement (ARM)

Durban Anarchist Federation (DAF)

Zabala Anarchist Communist Front (ZACF)

North-Eastern Federation of Anarcho-Communists (NEFAC)

Common Struggle Libertarian Communist Federation

Common Cause

Libertarian Communist Union

Siberian Confederation of Labor (SKT)

Workers' Solidarity Movement (WSM)

Libertarian Socialist Movement (LSM)

Libertarian Alternative (AL)

International Brotherhood

International Alliance of Socialist Democracy

Anarchist organizations within the International Working Person's Association

Anarchist Federation of the Altai (AFA)

Anarchist Federation of Poland (AFP)

Revolutionary Anarchist Socialist Party (PSAR)

German Anarchist Federation (AFD)

East Asian Anarchist Federation (EAAF)

Anarchist International Relations Commission (CRIA)

Continental Commission of Anarchist Relations (CCRA)

Korean Anarchist Federation's Chinese Exile Section (KAF-C)

Korean Anarchist Federation (KAF)

Durruti Column

Friends of Durruti (AD)

Kronstadt Accords (ZK)

Francophile Anarchist Federation (FAF)

Italian Anarchist Communists (FdCAI)

Anarchist Federation of Britain (AFB)

Japanese Anarchist Federation (JAF)

Spanish Regional Anarchist Organisation (OARE)

Anarchist Communist Alliance

Anarchist Federation

Black Front Society

Libertarian Socialist Council (LSC)

Workers' Solidarity Movement (RRU)

Workers' Solidarity (RR)

Co-ordination of Anarchist Groups

Anarcho-Communist Port-workers' Group (ACAOP)

Anarcho-Syndicalist National Confederation of Labour (ASNKR)

Union of Communist Anarchists (UCAI)

Federation of Communist Anarchists of German (FKAD)

Federation of Anarchist-communist Groups of Poland and Lithuania (FAGPL)

Japanese Anarchist Club (JAC)

Anarchist Federation

Federation of Anarchist Groups of Cuba (FGAC)

Anarchist Black Cross (ABC)

International of Anarchist Federations (IAF)

Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI)

anarchist faction in Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR)

Anarcho-Communist Unification (CUAC)

Libertarian Communist Organisation (OLC)

Uruguayan Anarchist Federation (FAU)

Anarchist Revolutionary Organisation (ORA)

Proletarian Action Anarchists Groups (GAAP)

Italian Anarchist Federation (FAI)

Federation of Communist Anarchists (FdCA)

Polish Anarchist Federation (FA)

Communist League of Anarchists

Anarcho-Syndicalist Federation

Anarchist Federation (AF) / Czech and Slovak Anarchist Federation (CSAF)

Federation of Libertarian Socialists (FFS)

General Delegation of the CNT (CNT-DG)

Venezuelan Regional Workers' Federation (FORV)

Federation of Anarchist Groups of Cuba (FGAC)

Cuban Libertarian Alliance (ALC)

General Confederation of Labor (CGT)

Federation of Anarchist Groups in Cuba (FGAC)

Yunan guerilla campaigns

Bolivian Regional Workers' Confederation (CORB)

Feminine Workers' Federation (FOB)

Revolutionary Popular Organisation 33 (OPR-33)

Libertarian Resistance (RL)

Workers' Liberation Group (Shagila)

The Scream of the People (CHK)

Movement 2 June (M2J)

Angry Brigade (AB)

Direct Action (AD)

Anti-capitalist Autonomous Commandos (KAA)

Left Opposition (LO)

Wiyathi Collective within the Anti-Capitalist Convergence


Freedom Summer, a 1964 campaign of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, an anti-authoritarian civil rights group.
Industrial Workers of the World demonstration in New York, 1914
Jane underground abortion service.
Philly Stands Up, a transformative justice collective.
Common Ground Collective distribution center
Self-managed Bruderhof factories.


Arditi del Popolo

Bruderhof factories

Combahee River Collective

Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)



Philly Stands Up

Common Ground Collective

Philly's Pissed

San Francisco Diggers

Libertarian Socialist Institute


Situationist International

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

Shamrik Mukti Dal

Young Negroes' Cooperative League

Industrial Workers of the World- Chile (IWW-Chile), 25,000 members in 1920

Cuban National Labour Confederation (CNOC), 200,000 members

IWW-Sierra Leonne, 3,240 members

Solidarity Union Democracy (SUD)

European Federation of Alternative Syndicalism (FESAL-E)

General Confederation of Labour (CGT), 230,000 members in 1906

Industrial Union of North and South America (UIANS) (Mexico)

Liberation Army of the South (ELS) (Mexico), 70,000 members

Industrial Syndicalist Education League (ISEL), 150,000 members in 1910s

Irish Transport & General Workers' Union (ITGWU), 12,000 members in 1917

Situationist International

Siberian Industrial Workers of the World (IWW-Siberia), 16,000 members

General Workers' Federation (GFP), 40,000 members

Union of Trade Unions (ZZZ)

Polish Syndicalist Union (ZSP)

Italian Syndicalist Union (USI)

Free Association of German Trade Unions (FvDG), 100,000 members

German Workers' Union of Germany (AAUD), 30,000 members

General Labour Union--Unity Organisation (AAU-E), 75,000 members

American Continental Workingmen's Association (ACAT)

General League of Koreans (HCH)

Libertarian Youth Federation of Iberia (FIJL)

Libertarian Youth (JJLL)

International Revolutionary Syndicalist Federation (FISR)

Syndicalist Workers' Federation (SWF)

Federation of Free Labour Unions (FFLU)

Independent League of Trade Unions (OVB)

IWW Marine Transport Workers' Industrial Union (MTWIU)

Chilean IWW

Ship-building Workers' Federation (FTB)

1951 syndicalist resistance in New Zealand

Industrial and Commercial Union of Southern Rhodesia (ICU yase Rhodesia)

National Convention of Workers (CNT), 400,000 members in 1972

Autonomous Workers' League (AWL)

Autonomous Village Movement (AVM)

Aid Group for the Libertarians and Independent Syndicalists in Cuba (GALSIC)



American Indian Movement and Anarchy

Anusilan Samiti

Black Panther Party and Anarchy

Students for a Democratic Society

Weather Underground and Anarchy


Albany Free School

Quechua Farmers School

Universidad Transhumante

Free Stores

Freecycle Network

Critical Resistance

Take Back the Night

No Border Network

Spanish Regional Labour Federation (FTRE)

Pact of Union & Solidarity (PUS)

Spanish Regional Workers' Federation (FORE)

Proletarian Circle (CP)

Grand Circle of Mexican Workers (GCO)

Regional Federation of the Eastern Republic of Uruguay (FRROU)

Worker's Federation (FO)

Artisan's Central Council (JCA)

Labourer's Circle (CT)

Cuban Labour Confederation (CTC)

Central Labor Union (CLU)

Northern Worker's Union (NWU)

Federation of Labour Exchanges (FBT)

1907 International Anarchist Congress

1913 Syndicalist Conference in London

Insurgent Committee of Revolutionary Partisans

National Labour Secretariat (NAS), 18,700 members in 1895

Federation of Freedom-loving Communists (FVC)

Libertarian Communist Organization

Libertarian Alternative

Committee for the Defence of Revolutionary Syndicalism (CDSR), 100,000 members

Trans-Siberian Railway

Industrial Workers of the World-US (IWW-US)

Confederation of Labour Associations (GLH)

Hunan Workers' Association

Black Societies

Wonsan General Trade Union

Free Trade Union

Argentine Regional Workers' Federation (FORA)

Argentine Regional Workers' Confederation (CORA)

Argentine Regional Workers' Federation of the 9th Congress (FORA-IX)

Argentine Libertarian Alliance (ALA)

Resistance Society of the Port-workers of the Capital (SROPC)

Uruguay Regional Workers' Organisation (FORU)

Brazilian Labour Confederation (COB)

Paraguayan Regional Workers' Organisation (FORPa)

Paraguayan Regional Workers' Centre (CORP)

National Revolutionary Alliance (ANR)

Workers' Trade Union Reorganisation Council (CORS)

Havana Labour Federation (FOH)

Cuban Workers' Confederation (CTC)

Chilean Workers' Central (CUT)

Mexican Regional Workers' Organization (FORM), 150,000 members in 1921

General Confederation of Labour (CGT)

Peruvian Regional Workers' Federation (FORPe)

Local Workers' Federation of Lima (FOL)

Colombian Workers' Federation (FOC)

Local Workers' Federation (FOL)

Feminine Workers' Federation

Guayas Workers' Regional Federation (FORG)

Ecuadoran Regional Federation of Labor (FTRE)

National Workers' Union (UON)

General Confederation of Labour (CGT)(Spain), 90,000 members in 1919

National Workers' Union (UON)

General Confederation of Labour (CGT) (Portugal)

Mexican Industrial Workers of the World (IWW-Mexico)

Mexican Liberal Party (PLM)

Industrial Union of North and South America (UIANS)

Liberation Army of the South (ELS)

National Agrarian Party (PNA)

Vlassovden Confederation

Italian Workers' Party (POI)

Free Workers' Union of Germany (FAUD), 120,000 members

North African Libertarian Movement (MLNA)

Korean Youth Federation in South China (KYFSC)

Federation of Free Society Builders (FFSB)

Korean Revolutionary Federation (KRF)

National Confederation of Labour (CNT)

General Italian Workers' Federation (CGIL)

Conference of Labour Unions (CLU)

Federation of Libertarian Socialists (FFS)

Independent League of Trade Unions (OVB)

General Confederation of Labor (CGT) (Cuba)

North African Libertarian Movement (MLNA)

Libertarian Communist International (ICL)

Libertarian Communist Organisation (OCL)

Libertarian Alternative (AL)

Second Escambray Front

Student Revolutionary Directorate (DRE)

Cuban Confederation (CTC)

Anarchists within the 26th of July Movement

Cuban Libertarian Movement in Exile

Swedish Workers' Central Organisation (SAC)

General Confederation of Labour (CGT) (Chile)

National Workers' Unity Movement (MUNT)

Federation of the Provincial Proletariat (Shengwulian)

Worker-Student Resistance (ROE)

Union of Libertarian Communist Workers (UTCL)

Alternative Libertaire

Interior Defense (DI)

First of May Group (GPM)

Iberian Liberation Movement (MIL-GAC)

Groups of International Revolutionary Action (GARI)

Neutralist Tribune

Movement of Revolutionary Communards (MRC)

Free General Workers' Union (SMOT)

Federation of South African Trade Unions (FOSATU)

Spies for Peace

Black Front Society (KSS)

Everyday Anarchy

"If there’s a line to get on a crowded bus, do you wait your turn and refrain from elbowing your way past others even in the absence of police? If you answered 'yes', then you are used to acting like an anarchist!" -David Graeber[11]



Really Really Free Market

Mumbai community dog care



Stonehenge Free Festival, 1972-1985 (one month a year), 30,000 people

Woodstock Festival, 1969, 40,000 people

Pioneer Health Centre

Little Commonwealth

Vienna Psychoanalytic Society's child guidance service

Horizontal organization in British architecture

Global postal service

International railways

Swiss city planning

Emdrup playground

The Yard


Mexican colonial proletarias

Peruvian 'barriadas

Tunisian gourbivilles

Indian bus tees

Turkish gecekondu

Venezuelan ranchos

Prestolee School

Institueion Libre de Enseiianza

Residential College for Students

1960 student revolts

Freetown playground

Skrammellegeplad playgrounds

Robinson Crusoe playgrounds

Brixham fishing cooperative

Brora mining cooperative

Standard tractor factory

Durham worker-managed mines

Gheel mental health care


Claimant's Union

Eyes on the street

Open source


Nonhuman Anarchy

"Everything is connected, absolutely everything. There are many aboriginal groups that will tell you stories about how all the species in the forests are connected, and many will talk about below-ground networks." -Sm’hayetsk Teresa Ryan[12]

"The basic premise in the ontology of wildness translates into anarchy, where the raison d'etre of everything and everyone - living or non-living, human or nonhuman, child or adult, male, female, intersexual, bisexual, or asexual, whatever the species, ethnicity, or race (all of which are important classifications for civilization only) is simply to be and to enjoy being. In wilderness, the world exists for its own reasons, its space and time uncontrolled, solely its own, regardless of whether it was created by an external divine will or generated through its own exploded forces." - Layla AbdelRahim[13]

"As I watch the Robins and Cedar Waxwings fill their bellies, I see a gift economy in which abundance is stored “in the belly of my brother.” Supporting a thriving bird community is essential to the well-being of the Serviceberry and everyone else up the food chain. That seems especially important to an immobile, long-lived being like a tree, who can’t run away from ruptured relationships. Thriving is possible only if you have nurtured strong bonds with your community."-Robin Wall Kimmerer[14]

" From autocatalytic chemical processes to cells, from living bodies to galaxies, we find a universe filled with structures exhibiting self-organizing dynamics... [A]n atom is a self-organizing system as well. Each atom is a storm of ordered activity. This invisible power assembling the energy into a particular constellation is the atom's identity. A galaxy, too, is an autopoietic system, organizing its stars into a nonequilibrium process and drawing forth new stars from its interstellar materials." -Brian Swimme and Thomas Berry [15]

"The forest has always been my teacher in peace, in diversity in democracy. Diverse life forms, small and large, moving and immobile, above ground and below, with wings, feet or leaves, find their place in the forest. The forest teaches us that in diversity lie the conditions of peace, the realization of democracy." -Vandana Shiva[16]

"If we recognize that every ecosystem can also be viewed as a food web, we can think of it as a circular, interlacing nexus of plant-animal relationships (rather than a stratified pyramid)...Each species, be it a form of bacteria or deer, is knitted together in a network of interdependence. A predator in the web is also prey, even if the 'lowliest' of organisms merely makes it ill or helps to consume it after death." -Murray Bookchin[17]

Animal Societies

Acorn woodpecker


Central American squirrel monkey


Domestic cat


Gorillas dismantling traps

Gray wolf

Groove-billed ani




Earth and Ecology

Appalachian forests


Earth system

Evolution of eukaryotes

Evolution of green hydra

Evolution of horse

Evolution of sea slugs

Evolution of translucent worms

Human body and anarchy

Mimosa-beetle symbiosis

Mycorrhizal network

Cosmos, Physics, and Chemistry

Chemical clock

Bénard convection


Physics and anarchy

Solar system's planets


Fictional Anarchy

"We live in capitalism, its power seems inescapable – but then, so did the divine right of kings. Any human power can be resisted and changed by human beings." -Ursula K. LeGuin[18]


Anarres (The Dispossessed)

Mars (Mars trilogy)

San Francisco (The Fifth Sacred Thing)



Fraggle Rock

Haudenosaunee (The Years of Rice and Salt by Kim Stanley Robinson)

Kesh (Always Coming Home)

Nowhere (News from Nowhere)

The Shire (The Lord of the Rings)


Umuofia (Things Fall Apart)



Examples by Source

Examples by Source

  1. Maia Ramnath, Decolonizing Anarchism: An Antiauthoritarian History of India's Liberation Struggle (AK Press, 2011), 6.
  2. Silvia Federici, "Global Anarchism: Provocations" in No Gods, No Masters, No Peripheries: Global Anarchisms, ed. Barry Maxwell and Raymond Crib, (Oakland: PM Press, 2015), 350-351.
  3. "Gord Hill, Indigenous Artist and Anarchist," Crimethinc, 1 August 2017,
  4. David Graeber and David Wengrow, "How to change the course of human history, Eurozine, 2 March 2018,
  5. L.S. Stavrianos, Global Rift: The Third World Comes of Age (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1981), 270.
  6. Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution
  7. Subcomandante Marcos, "Why We Chose the Weapon of Resistance" in Our Word is Our Weapon (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2001), 160.
  8. Joshua Stephens, “Palestinian Anarchists in Conversation: Recalibrating anarchism in a colonized country,” Institute for Anarchist Studies, 19 July 2013,
  9. Howard Zinn, "Anarchism Shouldn't Be a Dirty Word," AlterNet, 16 May, 2008,'t_be_a_dirty_word.
  10. Murray Bookchin, "Anarchy and Organization",,
  11. David Graeber, "Are You an Anarchist? The Answer May Surprise You!", The Anarchist Library,
  12. Ferris Jabr, "The Social Life of Forests", New York Times, 2 December, 2020,
  13. Layla AbdelRahim, Children's Literature, Domestication, and Social Foundation (New York: Routledge, 2015), 3-4.
  14. Robin Wall Kimmerer, "The Serviceberry: An Economy of Abundance," Emergence Magazine, 2020,
  15. Brian Swimme and Thomas Berry, The Universe Story: From the Primordial Flaring Forth to the Ecozoic Era - A Celebration of the Unfolding of the Cosmos (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1992), 75.
  16. Vandana Shiva, "Foreword" in Derrick Jensen and George Draffan, Strangely Like War: The Global Assault on Forests (White River Junction: Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 2003), vii.
  17. Murray Bookchin, The Ecology of Freedom: The Emergence and Dissolution of Hierarchy (Palo Alto: Cheshire Books, 1982), 26.
  18. "Ursula K Le Guin's speech at National Book Awards", The Guardian, 20 November 2014,