From Anarchy In Action
Southern part of the Captaincy of Pernambuco, in modern-day state of Alagoas, with representation of the Quilombo dos Palmares

From 1605 to 1694 in Brazil, Palmares was a federation of between 10,000 and 30,000 people, mostly runaway African slaves. Other residents included Indigenous, Jewish and Muslim people. As a "quasi-state," "Palmares possessed a complex social structure, replicating, in many instances, African political systems."[1]

In Anarchism in Latin America, Cappelletti calls Palmares "a community that in some sense was socialist and self-managed."

The Portuguese and Dutch colonizers "made no less than eighteen attempts to destroy it."[2] Palmares was eventually captured and destroyed by the Portuguese.