From 1605 to 1694 in Brazil, Palmares was a federation of between 10,000 and 30,000 people, mostly runaway African slaves. Other residents included Indigenous, Jewish and Muslim people. As a "quasi-state," "Palmares possessed a complex social structure, replicating, in many instances, African political systems."
In Anarchism in Latin America, Cappelletti calls Palmares "a community that in some sense was socialist and self-managed."
The Portuguese and Dutch colonizers "made no less than eighteen attempts to destroy it." Palmares was eventually captured and destroyed by the Portuguese.
- Ana Martins, "Palmares," Black Past, https://www.blackpast.org/global-african-history/palmares-ca-1605-1694/.
- Ángel Cappelletti, Anarchism in Latin America.